تست ریدینگ

ویژه سنجش زبان عمومی

در ادامه، ۵ مقاله و ۵۰ سؤال ریدینگ در اختیار شما قرار داده شده است. این سؤالات در ۵ دسته و سطح ۱۰سؤالی تقسیم‌بندی شده‌اند.

 

تعیین سطح را چگونه انجام دهیم؟

برای دریافت نتیجه مناسب مطابق روال زیر تست‌ها را انجام دهید:

  1. تست 1 مربوط به سطح Elementary را انجام دهید.
  2. پس از پایان تست این سطح، با توجه به نتیجه‌ی اعلام‌شده، به شکل زیر اقدام کنید:
    • اگر نتیجه تست شما را به تست بعد هدایت نمود، به ترتیب تست‌های بعد را نیز مانند گام‌های پیشین انجام دهید.
    • اگر سطح اعلام‌شده با سطح تست انجام‌شده یکسان بود، سطح ریدینگ شما مشخص شده و نیاز به انجام تست‌های بعد نیست.
    • اگر سطح اعلام‌شده با سطح تست پیشین یکسان بود، سطح شما مطابق با سطح پیشین است.
تست ریدینگ
Elementary

The frozen extremes of the earth

The Arctic in the north and the Antarctic in the south are at opposite ends of the planet, but they are similar in many ways. Both are lands of ice and snow, where the temperature in the winter can be so low that your skin can freeze in seconds. It can be as low as –80°C. Very few animals are able to survive these conditions, but there are some that can, both in the north and in the south. The Arctic has more plants and animals than the Antarctic, including polar bears, the largest bear in the world. In the south there are no land animals because of the extreme cold, but there are penguins and other sea animals that live on or near the coast – although both in the north and the south the ocean is frozen for much of the year.

One difference between the Arctic and the Antarctic is the human population. In parts of the Arctic, there are towns and villages. Greenland, for example, the largest island in the world, has a population of  55,000 people. Many of these people work in fishing. They have a difficult life. There aren’t many roads between towns and villages, so people travel by snowmobile or with dogs. From November to January it’s dark for 24 hours a day, but from May to July there are 24 hours of daylight. In the Antarctic, there are no normal towns and villages. Only scientists live there all year round, in special buildings called “stations.” They study the sea animals and learn about the history of the world’s climate by studying the weather and the ice. It’s a hard place to live, especially in winter, but many of them love it there and return again and again.

Pre-Intermediate

How to Survive in the Jungle

Last week in our series “Life in the Jungle,” we looked at some of the most fascinating jungles in the world. In this week’s feature, we’re looking at how to survive in the jungle. Alana Harris gives us some ideas.

When you’re in the jungle, you need to leave all your luxuries at home! That means, forget your cell phone, your favorite coffee, your chocolate bars, and your MP3 player. When you’re in the jungle, you need only four things: water, food, shelter, and fire. You can find all of these easily, but you have to know what to look for.

Let’s start with water. Even though there’s a lot of water in most tropical environments, you may not find it immediately. One way to discover it is to follow animals and birds, because they need liquid regularly. Insects can also be a good sign because they usually build their nests near water. However, don’t only look for rivers. You can also find water in plants such as vines, roots, and palm trees.

You can usually find a lot of food in the jungle, but you have to be willing to eat things you wouldn’t normally want to, for example, insects. However, you need to know the difference between those you can eat and those that are poisonous, so start reading about them now! For cooking and for warmth, collect dry firewood, leaves, and grass. Then make a fire using dry sticks, or take a box of matches or a lighter with you!

The type of shelter you need depends on the weather and the kinds of animals that are in the jungle. Malaria-carrying mosquitoes and other insects can be very dangerous, so protect yourself against bites. If you don’t have any insect repellent, try putting mud on your skin.

Of course, if you’re lost in the jungle, you’ll want to get home again. The sun and stars can help you find your way, so you might want to study astronomy. Alternatively, when you find a river, follow it. People usually live near rivers, so if you walk along the river bank, eventually you’ll find a village.

Intermediate

We all know that men and women have their differences. But do they really think differently? Some people might argue that they don’t, but I disagree. In my opinion, men and women still behave in the same way that they always have. We have different interests, different ways of speaking, of showing how we feel, and of coping with stressful situations.

In today’s society, where the sexes are considered to be equal, we sometimes forget how different we are. This can have a negative effect on our relationships. We often become angry or frustrated with the opposite sex because we expect them to behave and communicate like we do.

So why does a man behave as he does? There is evidence to suggest that men were programmed with the instinct to hunt silently for animals. They had to be able to focus their attention on one thing. This might explain why it’s so difficult to have a conversation with a man when he’s watching TV! And also why he’s so good at reading maps and giving directions.

Why does a woman act the way she does? Women are usually very good at multitasking (doing more than one job at once), but often find it harder than men to concentrate fully on one thing. In the past, women would have worked in groups, which required a lot of communication, so they’re generally more talkative and sensitive to other people’s feelings. A woman can return from a party knowing everything about everyone, but a man will probably have discussed less personal topics like football.

Research has shown that men and women use different parts of their brains for language. Women usually score higher in writing tests. Men are seven times more likely to score in the top 5 percent in scientific exams. They’re often talented at problem-solving and making quick decisions, while women are good at organization, comforting, and giving advice.

Of course, some women still practice dangerous sports, and some men can multitask without any problem after a strong cup of coffee! I’m not saying that women and men are not equal; it’s just that there are some natural differences, and that’s fantastic! We should appreciate and accept them as being what makes us special.

Upper-Intermediate

China is a modern, dynamic country that is currently undergoing such a remarkable period of regeneration and renewal that a visitor returning after ten years away would find it difficult to recognize the place. It is a country of brand new cities, and as factories are built and the economy booms, people are flooding into these thriving urban centers at an alarming rate. At first, it was the great cities along China’s southern coast that experienced sudden population growth, but the demand for urban living among China’s largely rural population is such that completely new cities far from the coast are now rising up and expanding outwards.

Chongqing is one of these great new cities. It’s a huge, sprawling metropolis of half-built skyscrapers and towering cranes wrapped in gray clouds of wintry mist and man-made pollution. Its mighty yet monotonously uniform buildings stretch far into the distance. Its population already exceeds 30 million, and with 40,000 people making their way to the city from the countryside every month, this population growth shows no sign of slowing down.

This marked shift from rural to urban living has worried many of China’s national decision makers, but not its urban planners. Rather than feeling overwhelmed by the idea of population movement on a scale not experienced before, these architects and designers are rising to the challenge and attempting to meet the needs of their new citizens. In the next two decades, China plans to create 20 new cities, designed to meet the needs of an estimated 12 million people whom the government expects to move from the countryside.

China is concerned about its international image as a nation whose economic and industrial emergence is at the expense of its own and the world’s environment. To address this, it has ambitious plans to build eco-cities, which, it hopes, may provide a model for the developing world. One such project is on Chongming, an island near Shanghai. Homes in this new city will be built using modern materials and will be designed to be energy- and waste-efficient.

These new eco-cities have many critics, however. They argue that the real aim of city authorities is not to use modern technology in order to create an eco-friendly city, but to build housing with the latest gadgets to appeal to a growing prosperous class of people who wish to live in attractive surroundings while feeling they are helping the environment. The true aim, these critics claim, is to attract more wealth to their cities and, therefore, more consumption, waste, and pollution.

Advance

THE SCIENCE OF PERSUASION

A Persuasion is key to much more than just business. In many walks of life and in many situations, persuading people to do what you want them to do is the key to success. Is persuasion a science with rules that can be taught and learned, or is it simply a matter of instinct and personal experience? Researchers have looked into different aspects of persuasion and come up with some interesting results.

B One advertising copywriter, for example, came up with an approach to selling a product on a TV shopping channel via phone sales that differed from the norm for such advertising. Instead of being instructed: “Operators are waiting, please call now,” viewers were told “If operators are busy, please call again.” This might appear to have been a risky tactic, putting potential buyers off by suggesting that they would have to waste their time calling repeatedly until they finally got through to someone to take their order. But the results were extraordinary and an unprecedented number of sales resulted. The ad suggested that the operators were not sitting around hoping people would call. Instead there were so many people who wanted the product that people might have to wait until they could get it. This showed just how desirable the product was. Potential customers decided that if so many other people wanted it, they definitely wanted it, too.

C What role does choice have in persuading people to buy or get something? One study looked at the choices employees made when offered different retirement programs. This showed that the more choices people were given, the less likely they were to choose anything at all. Another study in a supermarket revealed a similar effect of choice. A particular supermarket displayed either 6 or 24 different kinds of jam. When there were 24 jams to choose from, 3% of customers went to the display and bought one of the jams. When there were 6 jams on display, 30% of customers did so.

D To what extent can fear play a part in persuasion? One experiment involved public health leaflets on the dangers of tetanus infection. Some of the leaflets consisted almost entirely of frightening images of infected people, with a bit of information about infection, while some contained no images at all, only information about infection. Some included information on where people should go to get tetanus injections to protect themselves, while others only gave this information and nothing else. The outcome was that the greatest number of people who went for injections were those who had been given the leaflet with both frightening images and instructions on where to go for injections. People who had been given the leaflets dealing only with infection did nothing. The conclusion was that fear paralyzes people if no solution is offered, but if people are frightened and offered a solution they are motivated to take action.

E Research has also looked into the issue of restaurants persuading people who have booked to let them know if they are not going to turn up. This shows that getting people to promise to do something makes them more likely to do it than simply asking them to do it. If the restaurant asks people to call if they can’t make it, 30% of them simply don’t turn up and don’t tell the restaurant. If, however, the restaurant asks them to call if they have to cancel and they reply that they will do so, only 10% fail to notify the restaurant in advance that they will not be coming.

F Another aspect of persuasion concerns getting someone to change their mind. Everyone knows how hard this can be. It’s hard to prove to someone that a previous decision was wrong, and as people get older they get less and less willing to change their minds. This is because people want things to be consistent; they want their attitudes, statements, values and actions to follow a set pattern. The only way to persuade them to change is to acknowledge this by agreeing that the previous decision they made was a perfectly understandable one. This allows them to focus on your suggestion without feeling that their previous decision was wrong in any way. As a result, they may be persuaded to break out of their established pattern without feeling uncomfortable about doing so.